Hi Tara, in this video, I'm going to discuss one of the major threats to the validity of a systematic review: publication bias. I'll explain what publication bias is and provide a general overview of how we can detect its presence. Before we begin, I want to make a disclaimer that this is just a general overview and not intended for systematic reviewers looking for an in-depth discussion of methods to detect and analyze publication bias. Publication bias is a type of reporting bias, and it's interesting to note that there are several factors that affect the decision to publish or not publish a study, beyond what editorial boards consider. Take a moment to review this slide and consider some of these factors. So, what is publication bias? Essentially, it refers to the tendency to submit or accept a study based on its results. Positive studies are more likely to be published than negative studies. Some refer to this as the "file drawer problem," where negative or weaker studies never see the light of day and remain stuck in a file drawer. There have been studies showing evidence of publication bias. For example, one review analyzed the publication rates of significant versus non-significant results and found a higher percentage of studies with significant results being published compared to those with non-significant results. This demonstrates publication bias. Another interesting study, published in the British Medical Journal a decade ago, looked at studies submitted to the Swedish equivalent of the FDA for approval of SSRI drugs. The red circles represent studies with significant effects, while the blue circles represent studies with non-significant effects. When looking at the publication rates, it is clear that there are more publications from studies with significant effects, further supporting the existence of publication bias. So, why does...
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